Systematically understand the whole picture of the world’s scientific and technological frontier, and quickly collect this menu and outline.

Facing the world’s scientific and technological frontier is one of the important missions of popular science in the new era. The world’s scientific and technological frontier represents the most advanced part of scientific and technological development and is an important force to promote social progress and sustainable development. Popularization of science plays an important role not only in enhancing the public’s understanding of the world’s science and technology frontier and promoting the scientific and cultural quality of the whole people, but also in promoting the frontier research of science and technology, improving the ability of scientific and technological innovation and constantly improving the self-reliance of high-level science and technology.

In September 2022, the State Council of China issued the Opinions on Further Strengthening the Popularization of Science and Technology in the New Era, clearly requiring that we should focus on the "four orientations" (facing the world’s scientific frontier, facing the main battlefield of the economy, facing the country’s major needs, and facing people’s life and health) and high-level science and technology to stand on our own feet, comprehensively improve the scientific quality of the whole people, plant fertile soil for innovation, and better serve the work of the party and the national center with the high-quality development of popular science. The world’s scientific and technological frontier refers to the forward-looking, innovative and leading research direction or field in the current scientific and technological field, representing the most advanced part of scientific and technological development, with the characteristics of high innovation, interdisciplinary, high risk, long-term influence and international competition, and is an important force to promote social progress and sustainable development. These frontiers mainly involve: agricultural science, botany and zoology, ecology and environmental science, earth science, clinical medicine, biological science, chemistry and materials science, physics, astronomy and astrophysics, mathematics, information science and other disciplines, and their cross-integration.

In order to effectively carry out meaningful popular science and facilitate the public to systematically understand (avoid fragmentation) the whole picture of the world’s scientific and technological frontiers, the menu and outline of popular science for the world’s scientific and technological frontiers are listed here (not limited).

I. Agricultural Science

Agricultural science in the current frontier research field will help to improve agricultural production efficiency, reduce resource consumption and environmental pollution, and provide healthier, safer and more sustainable agricultural products. Its popular science points are as follows:

1. Gene editing and transgenic technology:

-Explore the application of gene editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9 in agriculture, which can accurately modify crop genes and improve yield, disease resistance and adaptability to adversity.

-Studying the potential of transgenic technology, introducing foreign genes to improve the traits and quality of crops.

2. Digital agriculture and precision agriculture:

-Digitization and automation of agricultural production will be realized with the help of technologies such as Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and big data analysis, and the accuracy and efficiency of crop management will be improved.

-Using remote sensing technology and unmanned aerial vehicles to monitor farmland and provide real-time crop growth information to help farmers make decisions.

3. Intelligent agricultural machinery and robot technology:

-Research and development of intelligent agricultural machinery, such as self-driving tractors and intelligent harvesters, to improve work efficiency and reduce labor costs.

-Develop agricultural robots that can automatically perform repetitive tasks, such as weeding, spraying and picking.

4. Greenhouse agriculture and vertical farms:

-Explore greenhouse agricultural technology, which can cultivate crops under bad weather conditions, prolong the planting season and provide stable yield and quality.

-Study the vertical farm technology, realize high-density planting of crops and save land and water resources through multi-layer overlapping planting system.

5. Circular agriculture and ecological agriculture:

-Promote the circular agriculture model, realize the maximum utilization of resources and reduce environmental pollution through the circular utilization of agricultural wastes and the circular coordination between aquaculture and planting.

-Advocate eco-agricultural practices, such as organic agriculture and eco-protection agricultural laws, reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and provide healthy and environment-friendly agricultural products.

Second, botany

The main points of frontier science in botany are as follows:

1. Plant genomics: study the structure and function of plant genome, explore the regulation mechanism and characteristics of plant genes, and the technical methods of genome editing and transformation.

2. Growth and development: study the growth and development process of plants, including cell division, formation and differentiation of plant organs, and the response and adaptation of plants to environmental stimuli.

3. Plant signal transduction: Study the signal transduction mechanism in plants, including the synthesis, transmission and function of plant hormones, as well as the signal pathways related to plant growth, flowering, disease resistance and adversity resistance.

4. Plant stress biology: Study the mechanism of plant stress adaptation, including plant physiological and molecular responses under stress conditions such as drought, high temperature, salinity, pests and diseases.

5. Natural products of plants: study the natural products synthesized and accumulated by plants, including compounds in medicinal plants, volatile substances in aromatic plants, and genes and metabolic pathways related to plant secondary metabolism.

Third, zoology

The main points of the frontier science of zoology are as follows:

1. Animal Behavior: To study the behavior patterns and social structures of animals, and to explore the behavioral characteristics such as the interaction between individuals and groups, courtship and reproductive behavior, and food acquisition.

2. Evolutionary biology: studying the evolutionary principles and mechanisms of animals, including natural selection, genetic variation, speciation, etc., as well as the relationship with environmental factors and lifestyles.

3. Neuroscience: studies the structure and function of animal nervous system, including electrophysiological properties of nerve cells, nerve signal transmission, perception and cognition.

4. Animal ecology: study the relationship between animals and their ecological environment, including animal habitat utilization, food chain and food web, migration and migration, ecosystem function and stability, etc.

5. Animal protection biology: study the theory and practice of animal protection, including the protection of biodiversity, species protection, habitat restoration, and the coexistence of human beings and wild animals.

IV. Ecology and Environmental Science

The main points of frontier science popularization of ecology and environmental science are as follows:

1. Climate change and adaptation: study the impact of climate change on ecosystems and the adaptation strategies of organisms to climate change. This includes studying issues related to climate change such as greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, sea level rise and extreme weather events.

2. Biodiversity protection and restoration: Study how to protect and restore biodiversity, including protecting key species, maintaining ecosystem functions, establishing protected areas and adopting sustainable resource management methods.

3. Ecosystem services and sustainable development: study the value and contribution of ecosystems to human beings, including providing ecosystem services such as food, water, air purification and soil conservation, as well as policies and practices to promote sustainable development.

4. Eco-informatics and big data application: Study how to use information technology and big data analysis to solve ecological and environmental problems, including the application of new technologies such as biological remote sensing, ecological simulation, data mining and visualization in ecological research.

5. Pollution control and ecological restoration: study the control measures of pollutant discharge, environmental pollution and ecosystem damage, including the development and application of environmental monitoring technology, waste treatment and ecological restoration technology.

6. Ecological cooperation and sustainable development: study the cross-disciplinary and cross-border ecological cooperation mechanism to promote the realization of global environmental protection and sustainable development goals.

V. Earth Science

The main points of frontier science popularization in earth science are as follows:

1. Geodynamics: Study the structure and movement inside the earth, including plate tectonics, seismic activity and volcanic eruption, so as to reveal the evolution of the earth and the mechanism of crustal change.

2. Geochemistry and geophysics: study the composition, properties and changes of the earth’s materials, as well as the physical processes inside the earth, including the earth’s magnetic field, geothermal activities and the formation and metamorphism of rocks.

3. Earth surface process: Study the morphological changes and geomorphological development of the earth surface, including river erosion, wind erosion, ice erosion and coastal erosion, as well as related soil formation and ecosystem changes.

4. Hydrology and water resources management: study the water cycle and the distribution and utilization of water resources on the earth, including the formation and change of groundwater, rivers, lakes and glaciers, as well as the methods of water resources management and sustainable utilization.

5. Climate and Meteorology: Study the development and change of global and regional climate patterns, climate change and weather phenomena, so as to reveal the mechanism of climate system, its future change trend and its impact on the environment and human society.

6. Interaction between Earth and Ecosystem: Study the interaction between Earth system and ecosystem, including the influence of ecological process on surface features and chemical cycle, and the influence of human activities on ecosystem and Earth.

7. Exploration and development of earth resources: study the exploration, development and utilization of mineral resources, energy resources and water resources on the earth, including the exploration technology of mineral resources, the development of oil and gas resources and the utilization of renewable energy.

8. Earth monitoring and remote sensing technology: study the use of remote sensing technology and earth observation data to monitor earth changes and environmental conditions, including the application of satellite remote sensing, laser measurement and earth observation network in earth science.

Six, clinical medicine

The main points of frontier science popularization in clinical medicine are as follows:

1. Gene editing and gene therapy: The emergence of gene editing technology, such as CRISPR-Cas9, enables us to accurately modify human genes, thus treating some existing hereditary diseases that are difficult to cure.

2. Precision medicine: through the comprehensive analysis of individual genome, phenotype and environmental factors of patients, individualized diagnosis, treatment and prevention can be realized, so as to improve the curative effect of patients and reduce unnecessary drug use.

3. Immunotherapy: Use the body’s own immune system to fight cancer and other diseases. Including the use of CAR-T cell therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors and so on.

4. Wearable medical devices: such as smart bracelets and smart watches, can monitor patients’ physiological parameters, exercise, sleep and other information, and provide doctors with more accurate diagnosis and treatment basis.

5. Application of artificial intelligence in clinical medicine: Through machine learning and deep learning algorithms, doctors can quickly analyze a large number of clinical data, assist in diagnosis and formulate treatment plans.

6. Organ transplantation and 3D printing technology: Biomaterials are printed by 3D printing technology, and important progress has been made in the field of regenerative medicine. Organ transplantation is also developing constantly, such as liver transplantation and kidney transplantation.

7. Advanced imaging technologies, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can provide high-resolution and high-quality human images for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

8. Mental health and brain research: By studying the brain, we can better understand the mechanism of mental illness and develop more effective treatment methods.

Seven, biological science

The main points of frontier science popularization in biological sciences are as follows:

1. Gene editing and gene therapy: Gene editing technology such as CRISPR-Cas9 has triggered revolutionary research progress, which can accurately edit the genome of organisms and is expected to be used to treat hereditary diseases. Gene therapy is the use of genetic engineering technology to repair or replace patients’ abnormal genes to treat diseases, including cancer and hereditary diseases.

2. Stem cell research: Stem cells are a kind of cells with the ability of self-replication and differentiation, which can differentiate into many cell types. Stem cell research has a wide application prospect in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and disease treatment, including organ transplantation, tissue repair and drug screening.

3. Artificial intelligence and bioinformatics: The development of artificial intelligence technology provides great support for bioinformatics, including big data analysis and mining in genomics, protein genomics and transcriptomics. Artificial intelligence can help accelerate the development of new drugs, early diagnosis of diseases and the realization of personalized medical care.

4. Synthetic biology: Synthetic biology is a discipline that transforms and creates life by synthesizing and redesigning biological systems. It involves genome design, the synthesis of biological components and the construction of biological circuits, and can be used in the fields of bioenergy production, environmental restoration and new drug development.

5. Genomics and single cell sequencing: Genomics studies the genome composition and function of organisms through whole genome sequencing. Single cell sequencing technology can deeply study the gene expression and gene mutation of a single cell, and reveal the mechanism of cell development, tissue regeneration and disease occurrence.

6. Precision medicine: Precision medicine aims to make personalized diagnosis and treatment plans according to the genome information and personal characteristics of each patient. This personalized medical model can improve the therapeutic effect and reduce the side effects, and has important application value for cancer, cardiovascular diseases and hereditary diseases.

Eight, chemistry and materials science

The main points of frontier science popularization of chemistry and materials science are as follows:

1. Nano-materials: Introduce the concept and characteristics of nano-materials, including size effect and quantum effect. The application of nano-materials in biomedicine, energy storage and conversion, sensors and electronic devices is discussed.

2. Two-dimensional materials: Introduce the structure and properties of two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and boron nitride. The application potential of two-dimensional materials in electronics, optoelectronics, catalysts and sensors is discussed.

3. Conjugated polymers: Introduce the structure and properties of conjugated polymers, including electrical conductivity and photoelectric properties. The applications of conjugated polymers in organic electronics, flexible electronics and wearable devices are discussed.

4. Electrocatalysis: Introduce the principle and mechanism of electrocatalysis, as well as the design and synthesis of catalyst. The application of electrocatalysis in energy conversion fields such as batteries, fuel cells and electrolytic water is discussed.

5. Sustainable chemistry: Introduce the concept and principles of sustainable chemistry, including green synthesis and circular economy. This paper discusses the application of sustainable chemistry in reducing environmental pollution, improving resource utilization efficiency and building a sustainable society.

6. biomaterials: introduce the classification and application of biomaterials, including biomedical and tissue engineering fields. To explore the application of biomaterials in drug delivery, tissue repair and artificial organs.

Nine, physics

The main points of frontier science in physics are as follows:

1. Quantum computing: Introduce the basic principles and concepts of quantum computing. This paper discusses the application of quantum computing in solving complex problems and cracking passwords.

2. Particle physics: introduce the study of elementary particles (such as quarks and leptons) and the basic structure of the universe. To explore the importance of particle physics in understanding the origin of the universe and exploring new particles.

3. String theory: introduce string theory as a new field of theoretical physics. This paper discusses the importance of string theory in solving quantum gravity problems and unifying particle physics.

4. condensed matter physics: introduce the importance of condensed matter physics for studying the properties of solids and liquids. The application of condensed matter physics in materials science and nanotechnology is discussed.

5. Cosmology: Introduction to cosmology, the science of studying the origin and evolution of the universe. Explore the importance of cosmology in understanding dark energy, dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe.

6. Photonics: Introduce the application of photonics in optical communication, optical storage and optoelectronics. This paper discusses the potential of photonics in solving the problems of information processing and energy conversion.

X astronomy and astrophysics

The main points of frontier science popularization in astronomy and astrophysics are as follows:

1. Black holes and gravitational waves: Black holes are extremely curved areas in space, which have strong gravity and even light cannot escape. Recently, through gravitational wave observation, scientists directly detected the existence of black holes for the first time, and conducted a more in-depth study on their properties and formation. Gravitational waves are long-predicted spatio-temporal shocks first observed in 2015, which are derived from extremely powerful astronomical events, such as the merger of two black holes or the explosion of stars. Gravitational wave observation provides us with a new means to explore extreme celestial bodies and the origin of the universe.

2. Interstellar planets and extraterrestrial life: Interstellar planets are planets that exist around other stars. Scientists have begun to discover a series of exoplanets, some of which may have conditions suitable for life. Researchers are trying to answer the question of whether there is other life in the universe by detecting and analyzing the atmosphere and composition of these interstellar planets. Through the study of life forms in special environments on earth, such as microorganisms and ancient fossils in extreme environments, scientists also try to explore the mystery of the origin and evolution of life.

3. Dark matter and dark energy: Dark matter is a substance that does not emit light and does not interact with electromagnetic waves in the universe, while dark energy is a hypothetical energy form that causes the accelerated expansion of the universe. Their existence is still a mystery, but they occupy most of the energy and mass of the universe. Scientists are trying to reveal the nature of dark matter and dark energy by observing and simulating the structure of the universe, galaxy clusters and cosmic microwave background radiation, and further understand the evolution of the universe.

4. Burst cosmology: Burst cosmology is to explore the evolution of the universe and the high-energy process of matter by observing and studying the explosive events of cosmic phenomena, such as supernova explosions or gamma-ray bursts. These cosmic explosions release enormous energy and have an important impact on the structure of the universe and the formation of galaxies. By using multi-band observation, particle physics and numerical simulation, scientists are revealing the physical mechanism in explosive cosmology, the origin of cosmic rays and the generation and evolution of super-strong magnetic field in the universe.

5. Evolution of Galaxies: Galaxies are huge celestial structures composed of stars, gases, dust and other substances. By observing and simulating the formation and evolution of galaxies, researchers are revealing the formation law of the large-scale structure of the universe, and on this basis, understanding the formation and development process of stars, galaxy mergers, supermassive stars and cosmic black holes.

XI. Mathematics

The main points of mathematics frontier science popularization are as follows:

1. Group Theory and Algebraic Geometry: Group Theory is the basis of studying abstract algebraic structure, focusing on groups and exploring the laws of symmetry and transformation. It has important applications in physics, cryptography and computer science. Algebraic geometry studies the relationship between algebra and geometry, and studies geometric shapes and structures by introducing geometric methods into algebraic equations. It is widely used in machine learning and image processing.

2. Topology and geometry: Topology studies the nature of space, focusing on shape and deformation rather than measurement and size. It has important applications in the fields of network analysis, data mining and material science. Geometry studies the shape of space, focusing on measurement and size. It is widely used in computer graphics, computer aided design and robotics.

3. Number theory and cryptography: Number theory studies the properties and relationships of integers, including the distribution of prime numbers, integer factors and congruences. It has important applications in cryptography, coding theory and computer security. Cryptography studies the methods and technologies to protect information security, including cryptographic algorithms, identity authentication and digital signature. It plays a key role in network security and data protection.

4. Algorithms and Complexity Theory: Algorithms study the methods and steps of problem solving, including designing efficient algorithms and solving the difficulties of computing problems. It is widely used in computer science and operational research. Complexity theory studies the complexity of problems and the demand for computing resources, including the solvability and difficulty of computing problems. It has important applications in artificial intelligence and optimization problems.

5. Probability and statistics: Probability theory studies the regularity and probability distribution of random phenomena, including random processes and random variables. It is widely used in the fields of risk assessment and decision analysis. Statistics studies the methods and techniques of data analysis and inference, including data collection, description, analysis and model building. It has important applications in the fields of empirical scientific research and market research.

XII. Information Science

The frontier of information science involves many fields from traditional computer science to artificial intelligence, quantum computing, network security and so on. The main points of its popular science are as follows:

1. Artificial intelligence: the goal, definition and development of artificial intelligence; Basic principles and applications of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning; Research and application in artificial intelligence fields such as natural language processing, computer vision and intelligent robots.

2. Quantum computing: the basic concepts and principles of quantum computing; Differences and advantages from traditional computers; Key technologies of quantum computing, such as qubit, quantum gate and quantum entanglement; Current research progress and application prospect of quantum computing.

3. Network security: threats and challenges of network security; Basic concepts and technologies such as cryptography, security protocols and identity authentication; Common methods and strategies of network attack and defense; Research and application in emerging fields such as blockchain technology and decentralized security network.

4. Data science and big data analysis: the basic concepts, processing flow and application fields of data science; Collection, storage and processing technology of big data; Core algorithms of data science such as data mining, machine learning and predictive analysis; Applications such as business intelligence and decision support system based on data analysis.

5. Bioinformatics: the research object and goal of bioinformatics; Analysis methods of bioinformatics such as genomics, transcriptomics and protein genomics; Key technologies such as biological sequence alignment, protein structure prediction and gene expression regulation network; Application of bioinformatics in medical and biological science research.

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Original title: "Systematically understand the whole picture of the world’s scientific and technological frontiers, and quickly collect this menu and outline"